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how many neutrons does actinium have?
There are 89 protons and 138 neutrons in the nucleus of an actinium atom. This number varies from one isotope to the next. The most common isotope of actinium, Ac-227, has 89 protons and 138 neutrons.
Neutrons are charged particles that can help stabilize atomic nuclei. They also help offset the electrical repulsion between protons. In addition to attracting each other, neutrons also form bonds with protons and other nuclei in the nucleus.
The number of protons and neutrons in an atom determines the element’s properties such as its atomic weight, atomic radius, and electron configuration. Because of this, it is important to understand how many protons and neutrons are present in an element.
Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity
An ion is a substance that carries a positive or negative charge by accepting or rejecting electrons. Ionization energies measure the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of an atom or molecule when it loses an electron to form a positive ion and gains an electron to form a negative ion.
In a solid, the ions can be separated by the addition of a chemical agent that attracts and binds the ions. This agent may be a strong acid or base, such as sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, or it may be a solvent, such as alcohols or water.
The ionization energies of a solid are typically higher than those of a gaseous substance because the ions in a solid have a larger surface area. This means that the ions can form large clusters of molecules and so they can accumulate more energy in their outermost shells than their gaseous counterparts.