Overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in size and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that the shape and size of diamond nanoparticles are elliptic or spherical. Diamond nanoparticles are mainly made of carbon. Although the structure is very similar, the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is almost identical to that found in diamond. Recent studies have shown that the surface is composed primarily of carbon. However, it also contains phenol, pyrrole and sulfonic, as well as small amounts of carboxylic, hydrol, and epoxy groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. Recent studies have shown that the size of diamond nuclei decreases the frequency of nitrogen-vacancy center.
Production methods for nano-diamond
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombardment and laser bombardment, microwave crystal chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), ultrasonic synthesizing, and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose/monosaccharide.
Detonation is usually performed in a sealed chamber of stainless steel that is oxygen-free. It produces a mix of Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent the formation nanoparticles of diamond, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond is the most stable phase in such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove SP2 and other metal impurities, either gaseous or solution phase Nitric Acid Oxidation are the best options.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
The Nano diamond material is an extremely versatile material, with many connotations and rich characteristics. This is a field that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials, defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, mechanical and chemical industries. There are many applications for this material in our everyday lives. I believe it will have a large-scale use in other industries in the near future.
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